Beyond the Cusp

July 21, 2016

Requiem for Turkey, the Final Chapter

 

There have already been six-thousand arrests made since the abortive coup. Three-thousand Judges and prosecutors as well as three-thousand officers of varying ranks and soldiers all from lists supposedly gathered as a result of the coup. There will be mention of how these individuals were all cooperating and coordinated by Fethullah Gulen from Pennsylvania, USA. Sure, an aging Imam in Pennsylvania organized and commanded step-by-step including telling the pilots of F-16 fighters who had missile lock on President Erdogan’s jet while he was known to be onboard and never fired a single shot, some coup. This coup smells, plain and simple, smells. You do not produce a list of a complete list of judiciary and military personnel within twenty-four hours, if even that long as the list was obviously already prepared. The threat of such a purging may have triggered the coup attempt before the planning was complete if the coup was actually a subversive group. Had the coup been an attempt to return to actual free and open elections and a return to secular rule and bringing an end to the Muslim brotherhood agenda being enacted by Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his Freedom and Justice Party, then it would have been well worth supporting. Had that been the case, then constitutionally the entire military should have supported the coup. The fact that this was not the case is another accusation against Erdogan as he has flushed much of the military hierarchy in his last purge and with the current purge all will be loyal to Erdogan who will now wield absolute power.

 

The purge being executed in Turkey would have made Stalin proud. Erdogan will have little if any opposition left in all of Turkey once he completes gathering names from those already arrested and the completion of his purge has removed every vestige of secularism and of all Islamic opposition securing Erdogan President for life status. He and his Freedom and Justice Party, a political party that neither supports freedoms or justice, will rule Turkey with an unopposable outright majority for the foreseeable future. This was Erdogan’s intended desires even when he made his agreement with Fethullah Gulen in order to come to power in his initial election. In each election after this agreement Erdogan has done all in his power in order to attain an unopposable majority even if it, like the last elections, took a second election and the elimination of opposition to attain that majority. Erdogan has been anything but an angel in office often playing power politics and taking any and all steps as required, including intimidations, executions, assassinations and outright military pressures suppressing certain sectors of the society from participating in elections in order to reach absolute power. Absolute power without the need of any compromises has been the desired end which Erdogan has pursued ever since his first election and now that he has attained such he is not about to permit any challenge to his powers. This cements Erdogan as the singular choice for those who desire Sharia and spurn the ideals of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and his dream of a secular Turkey. It has been Erdogan’s desire from day one to impose Islamic law, Sharia, and he is closer than ever to accomplishing exactly that by ridding himself of all opposition, both secular and Islamic. Such a turn of events has been a long time coming and expected eventually by all who know Turkish politics and Erdogan’s desires from the beginning. He has succeeded where Egyptian President Morsi failed by being cautious and taking things one slow step at a time. That time has now passed and he will enact Sharia in rapid succession as he no longer need fear a challenge from any direction and should anybody be fool enough to oppose Erdogan and his Islamization of Turkey will find themselves either in a cell permanently or hanging from a rope. President Erdogan has attained what he always desired, absolute power which will in time corrupt him absolutely and thus be his failing as Sharia will be the instrument of his downfall.

 

President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Accused Coup Leader Imam Muhammd Fethullah Gulen

 

Turkey had an opportunity to survive Erdogan and his Islamist desires but such a move by the military as required in the Turkish Constitution was repudiated and prevented by President George W. Bush and the European Union allowing for Erdogan to purge the General Staff of opposition while the current lists go deep within the officer ranks and lists many middle level officers and senior NCOs which will lead to more names under torture and other forms of distress leading to a witch hunt the likes of Turkey has never seen. In the coming weeks every and anybody who even the slightest might ever stand in opposition of Erdogan will be purged from Government, the military and anyplace else where influence might rise against him. This is the second purging executed by Erdogan and he is hoping the final time. The bad news for Erdogan is that the purges never reach an end once they have started as there will always arise those who will oppose his rule and some might even rise to the position of posing an actual threat. At this moment in time Fethullah Gulen holds this honor and anybody affiliated with him is in dire threat as Erdogan is intensifying his aim to remove any of those who are aligned with the man who was originally responsible for placing Erdogan in power. As the original person with whom Erdogan shared the reins of power, Fethullah Gulen has now become a threat which Erdogan is no longer willing to permit to exist as Fethullah Gulen could potentially stand in opposition to Recep Tayyip Erdogan any point in the future and actually pose a real risk to take power and end Erdogan’s efforts to subvert all of Turkey under Sharia. Gulen is an Imam who also supports democracy and universal rights, a kind of idiosyncratic personality who supports a reformed Islam which subverts itself to universal freedoms and equal rights. This purge is designed to put down any vestige of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and the secular ambitions subverting them permanently placing all of society under the crushing oppression of Sharia where all independent thought and acts are punishable by severe and often life threatening punishments. Erdogan is shutting down all opposition securing Turkey in much the same manner as Stalin shut out all opposition in Russia within months of taking the reins of power in Soviet Russia. Ataturk is done and all who dreamed that the secular Turkey was protected by the military and would continue forever is done, dead and over. It actually was mortally wounded the last purge which was facilitated by President George W. Bush and the European Union which insisted that should the military ever move to remove a government, a responsibility placed with them by the Turkish Constitution, then Turkey could forget ever being permitted to join the European Union because no normal democracy relies upon the military to protect the realm. Well, Turkey was not a normal democracy and did rely on the military to protect Turkey from Islamic power grabs as Erdogan has slowly enacted since he first took power. Now even that avenue to correct the Islamization of Turkey has been decimated by Erdogan and is now an enforcement of Sharia and Islamic sovereignty over secular governance.

 

This should pose a threat to NATO, a threat which has long existed dating from the initial election of Erdogan. He started his slow but inexorable march towards Sharia from the very outset of his Presidency. His final aim was to alter the Constitution such that it would not only allow for Islamic Sharia governance but welcome such as the desired end all of any government. Soon it will be forgotten that Turkey had dreams of joining the free world and enjoying the advancements of science and technology as the sheath of Sharia falls over the land. Soon simply memorizing the entire Quran will be the ultimate conclusion of a successful education. The Quran will become viewed as the ultimate source for all knowledge as Sharia is incompatible with modernity. What is frightening is the fact that Turkey is a member of NATO which worked as a check on Russia during the Cold War. Such is no longer the situation with Russia standing their Mediterranean fleet docked along the Syrian coast in the Alawite areas which remain loyal to Bashir al-Assad and thus far not under direct threat by the Islamic State or other Islamist forces and are provided with support both from Iran and if needed Russia. Turkey has lost its importance to NATO and with its current threat to become another Sharia ruled Islamic nation should, as we have pointed to before, be dropped from the NATO rolls. The European Union (EU) has thus far refused entry to Turkey and should be glad they had such luck. We refuse to give the EU credit of foresight in not permitting Turkey entrance. We are not even assured that Turkey will not be permitted entrance into the EU as they start their expansion into the Middle East. Once Turkey has been permitted EU membership the ‘refugee’ problem will explode as Turkey allows free access to any and every Arab and Muslim desiring entrance to Europe, Germany in particular. Allow Turkey into the EU and they would become the welcome mat for all peoples desirous of leaving the poverty and backwardness of their Middle East and North African hellholes. From an EU affiliated Turkey these ‘refugees’ would be permitted free travel throughout the EU nations and be permitted settling wherever and whenever they desire and collecting the guaranteed wage proffered by most EU members.

 

The EU already desires entering the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) as explained in their releases to the media and academia. We have discussed these plans in an article titled The European Union Actually Planning Empire and figure the EU plans on surrendering to Middle Eastern pressures. With Turkey on the fast track to Sharia and an end to freedom as the member states of the EU likely remember, the addition of Turkey as a first step to incorporating the Middle East and later Africa into EU membership, then the EU population had best prepare for having Sharia as the basis of their laws. As a member of the EU or just a member of NATO, Turkey holds a prestigious spot; especially when one considers that Turkey has the second largest military in NATO after that of the United States. As such Turkey demands a certain amount of respect but only as long as Turkey maintained a respect for individual rights and freedoms. No matter how the media and others wish to spin the new direction which Turkey has planted itself, those found to favor Erdogan should be watched with additional scrutiny. It is highly doubtful that there would be any changes in how the United States views Turkey as Erdogan has been best of friends with Obama as they are with Hillary through the Clinton Foundation and contributions made to influence Hillary when she was Secretary of State. These influences will likely spend a large amount in campaign contributions, both legal and otherwise as Hillary believes herself above the law; something made abundantly clear at her Senate hearings where she prevaricated, dancing around any truth until the lies became the facts in many a media report. Unfortunately for most Americans, this has become what they expect from the media and the editorializing of the news stories to fit their political leaning tainting many a news story until it is unrecognizable by the truth. Both ends of the political spectrum suffer this affliction.

 

Such twisting, messaging and reworking of facts will inevitably be the only permitted truth out of the media in Turkey. This, once it is not necessarily their fault as the Erdogan controlled government, courts and military; will own the truth and decide what the truth is for the people of Turkey and for the world for good measure. Erdogan knows that his citizens, at least the urban citizens, have access to the world media and thus his spin on reality must therefore become the only story permitted. He, even with the Muslim Brotherhood’s assistance, will find that accomplishing this task will be far more difficult than preventing the poorly executed coup from success. The obvious fact that Erdogan was at the cusp of executing a purge may have pushed those supporters of a truly democratic Turkey or possibly the supporters of Erdogan’s chief rival, Fethullah Gulen, who may have struck a deal with the democracy forces interested in reestablishing Ataturk’s secular Turkey dreams and aspirations for progress, into acting earlier than they had planned facing Erdogan’s imminent purging of their ranks. Whether this was a well played trap or a rushed into execution actual coup will make absolutely no difference down the road a piece. The only item which will matter is, who will survive the sweeping broom of Erdogan and the Islamists as they clean house in the judiciary and the military and likely soon the population at large. The next step is to take those they have rounded up and get public confessions from the most recognized names amongst them. This will definitely be followed by the extracting of names of others who may be of a similar mindset as the coup participants and the others on the prepared lists. This housecleaning was very obviously already planned and just as the coup may have been rushed into execution, so have the cleansing of the Turkish government, military and eventually the public itself.

 

We are witnessing the end of Turkey as it had been known and the birth of Turkey as the hoped rising leader to assume its rightful place as the leaders of the Islamic world. Turkey’s military is both large and well equipped with top of the line NATO equipment, arms and hardware. They have a modern Air Force equipped with F-16s, F-15s as well as other supporting aircraft. Their ground forces have top of the line main battle tanks and armored support. The infantry have modern weapons systems and are supported by highly accurate artillery. The size of the Turkish military is such that they will hardly miss the three-thousand officers arrested in relation to the coup and could lose an equal number before there may be some residual effects. The real question is what will Erdogan do once he attains ultimate and absolute power? Will he use his military against the Kurds, the forces supportive of Bashir al-Assad, attempt a breaching of the Israeli blockade of Gaza to help his Hamas allies, or is Erdogan really planning on a second Ottoman Empire as he has stated in the Past? These questions have ramifications within Turkey, as well as throughout NATO, to Israel, Egypt, Iran, and Saudi Arabia. Erdogan has oft spoken of how he would be the right man to reestablish the Ottoman Empire as well as he has claimed the right to being the Caliph of the next real Caliphate which will be perched to spread Islam throughout the world vanquishing all other religions bringing every man, woman and child to bend and surrender to Allah. Sure that sounds crazy but one must bear in mind that it is solely Western Culture which has given up on world conquest, others still believe they were destined from birth to rule the world. Some such people holding to such insanities include but are not limited to North Korea’s Kim Jung Un, Russia’s President Putin, European Union and Germany’s Angela Markel, United States President Obama and presumed President Hillary Clinton, numerous institutions and financial giants, and of course the Grand Ayatollah of Iran and Erdogan of Turkey. This may sound absurd to you and me but it is real for these crazies who walk amongst us.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

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July 16, 2016

Short Primer on the Turkish Constitution

The Coup in Turkey must be seen in light of the Constitution of Turkey of which there can be more than one at any given time. The one the government runs on can be different than the Founding Principles of the Republic of Turkey (an approximate translation) while the leaders in Turkey often make small changes kind of personalizing the constitution to their tastes. The Founding Documents (as we will refer to them) task the Turkish Military with keeping Turkey a secular democratic nation and to guard against any Islamist takeover of the government or a dictator cancelling elections and ruling by fiat (not just a small car). The military was prepared to remove Erdogan once before and had told NATO command as Turkey is a member of NATO. Turkey has also been attempting to join the EU, perhaps they can replace Britain now, and back then really thought they were close. The EU backed strongly by George W. Bush demanded the Turkish military back down because civilized nations do not do things this way. Erdogan having gotten wind of this replaced most of the Generals with his puppets. Still, the Turkish military, even with Erdongan’s puppets, take their Constitutional duty very seriously plus a number of these puppets have retired and younger officers promoted and we believe it is these commanders pulling to change the government and undo the Islamization done by Erdogan.

 

George W. Bush followed by Barack Obama produced Recep Tayyip Erdogan

George W. Bush followed by Barack Obama produced Recep Tayyip Erdogan

 

So the military acting on their Constitutional duty to keep Turkey secular are attempting a coup, something which would have been easy back in 2005 but will be more difficult as Erdogan controls a very militarized set of police forces and has his own military he keeps as a personal guard. The free world will be fed this blah blah blah coup evil blah bad coup, blah blah no true democratic nation operates blah blah and so forth. Know that when Kamil Ataturk ruled Turkey at the end of World War I and the end of the Ottoman Empire which was ruled from Turkey, he made a Constitution as a Muslim man who understood the Islamic directives for Islamist Sharia to be the law of the land but had seen how democratic nations with their individual freedoms and market driven economies had made mincemeat of the Ottoman forces with modern weapons and individual soldiers who were independent and could operate without being told every little order and he wanted Turkey to emulate this model and set up a secular state. He knew there would be leaders who would, either on their own or bending to popular will, would try to in stages enshrine Sharia.

 

Turkey has had a number of coups to remove leaders attempting to take dictatorial power or enact Sharia or other Islamizations. Erdogan was getting away with his Islamization and march towards Sharia but probably crossed the line for even his own generals in the last elections. What occurred was the Kurdish Party won far more votes than ever before feeling empowered by the Kurds stand against Islamic State and in Iraq against everybody else both Shia and Sunni. The Kurds, for the record, are predominantly Sunni but as Kurds are spurned by the Arabs as lesser human beings at best. This why the Kurds always need stand alone and why they took the lead and were largely responsible for rescuing the Yazidiz from the mountain siege which saw girls and women throw themselves off the cliffs rather than fall to then ISIS forces. This meant that Erdongan’s “Freedom and Justice Party” (which is neither freedom nor justice but Islamic Sharia oriented) did not have a clear majority of the seats in the Parliament and would need a coalition. Erdogan does not share power so he made sure that the coalition he could easily have made refused to allow any majority coalition forcing a redo on the elections. In the weeks between the elections his enforcers killed any number of Kurdish candidates who were elected and terrorized other parties’ supporters and other niceties. Needless to say, his Party won an overwhelming majority and he restarted his Islamization at a quickened pace as he saw that he might not continue to have such support in the future and he desired to become Caliph of the new Ottoman Empire starting with conquest of Syria, or what is left of Syria. With a modern military and NATO weaponry he could carry this out and as long as he left the Alawite coastal area where the Russians are located alone he would easily crush the Kurds and the other less able factions. But Erdogan saw he had a time limit to operate, until the American elections.

 

Erdogan had President Obama in his pocket and can do anything and his BFF in the White House would bless it as really needed. Should Clinton lose and Trump become President he would not be able to do as he pleased and get away with it. Even Hillary might pose difficulties as she would not desire such a conflagration on the front end of her Presidency and won knows after that. As things are Erdogan saw he needed to strike while the iron was hot, so to speak. His military seeing his ambition and his probability to engage in a war, which would eventually pace them fighting Saudi Arabia, Egypt and potentially Israel, were probably not the happiest Generals in the world, because they realize, as Erdogan does not, that they would lose badly in the end. Erdogan only sees him as world ruler as the Caliph of the great and final Caliphate which conquered the world for Allah. He believes that is his destiny and reality be damned. The military is very reality oriented and do not desire damning reality as reality will smack you back and hard. This may have been the straw that broke the camel’s back.

 

Now we will just wait and see who wins and pray that Turkey has a restored Constitution and election sometime in the coming year as that would be a huge step in the right direction. What is almost comical is the threat of a new American President, Clinton or Trump, but definitely Trump, has already started paying dividends. It is sad that the vast majority, say 85%, will not see this as anything but some war somewhere they cannot find on a world map and know not that it was what ruled the Ottoman Empire (if they know there ever was an Ottoman Empire) and may will never even know that there is a war in Turkey. I kind of had forgotten how little attention the average person takes in world affairs as long as they are not bothered in some way. I guess as long as it is over there and not here what do I care is a theme everywhere, it is sad.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

May 5, 2016

Ancient Thoughts and the World Today

 

I read an e-mail article which listed what it claimed in its title to be “20 Quotes From Ancient Greek Philosophers That Liberals Still Don’t Understand” and four of these in particular got my brain reeling, drowning in swirling daydreams and thought perhaps it might be fun to share. I found myself gravitating to three philosophers where one was the most gifted student of the other and the other their sole peer. Below are the thoughts in decreasing order of relevance, or at least in ease of application and understanding. This dictates we tackle them in reverse order working from the sublime imperatives from which we then reach the inevitable brutal and undeniable truth.

 

“Republics decline into democracies and democracies

degenerate into despotisms.” – Aristotle

 

“This and no other is the root from which a tyrant springs;

when he first appears he is a protector.” – Plato

 

“A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion,

a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” — Socrates

 

“The curse of me and my nation is that we always think things can be bettered

by immediate action of some sort, any sort rather than no sort.” – Plato

 

 

Plato Socrates Aristotle

Plato Socrates Aristotle

 

That places our starting point with Plato and the concept, “The curse of me and my nation is that we always think things can be bettered by immediate action of some sort, any sort rather than no sort.” This is true in every government which depends on the opinions of the people discerned through an elective process. Be the system parliamentary, republic, direct democracy or other form where the voting public consists of eligibility of the greater part of the adult electorate and where promises gains votes those promises will come fast and loose. This will inevitably lead to greater and greater promises which will become more and more immediate often inventing problems and difficulties which are designed for easy quick solutions which can be readily enacted and implemented despite there being no reality to both the invented problem and an easy answer. Everything becomes something which requires an immediate solution and this demand continues to grow and now the people soon demand that even the greatest difficulties of the world be solved with the same brilliance, alacrity and without difficulty or complications. The expectations have become unrealistic but then when the people are demanding miracles, those who desire to hold office will make promises which they know cannot be solved with promises which they know will never be solved and only lead to greater problems as the half measures designed as quick actions which are definitive, definitive failures causing more and deeper problems. The demand for immediacy by the public eventually leads to the need for a savior.

 

That brings us to the next quote from Socrates which states, “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” This is where taking the false promises of charlatans who are the sole makers of empty promises selling them as definitive solutions to the most knotty and complex of problems starts us down a slippery slope. These have the ability to sell a framing of the problem in such a way that their solution appears obvious but nobody seems to think why if the solution which now appears so simple, easy and immediate that it did not appear for the last body of officials. Nobody wants to question whether the defining of the problem has been molded and crafted simply to facilitate the elevation of the individual and not done to reach a viable solution. These charlatans always play emotional weaknesses and know the desires of the people more than they understand the problems but emotionalism plays well, think Donald Trump with one difference, imagine Trump with a solution to the Middle East which is easy, immediate and apparently just hidden from view in such a way that only Trump could see it. Of course Donald Trump has not put forth such a solution and instead has simply sold that things will be great, trust Trump, great. Well, it is so completely different than Yes We Can. Both “Make America Great Again” and “this was the moment when the rise of the oceans began to slow and our planet began to heal; this was the moment when we ended a war and secured our nation and restored our image as the last, best hope on Earth” are empty boasts on which all problems can be put aside as the personality is sufficient to repair every problem. These set up a system of morality which is made of empty platitudes that caught the people up in an emotional defining of the world and choosing a leader purely on emotion which eventually leads to disappointment making the situation primed for the next step.

 

We go back to Plato where we read, “This and no other is the root from which a tyrant springs; when he first appears he is a protector.” When the solutions are minimized such that false solutions become the norm, we reach a mire so deep that only a savior is believed to be the only possible solution. A person who is charismatic and has a plan, a plan that sweeps the public up with the promises, causes them to fall head over heels for the man with the plan which will heal their nation and restore it to greatness and return every glory which was once true and real. The savior and restorer of the greatness are seen as one who will revamp the government and streamline the process and accomplish that which formerly was not possible. The protector comes with promises if only you can and will trust what he knows must be executed to bring about the future promised by this protector. The promise is that once they are loosed from the restriction built into government and being freed from the tethers designed to limit and constrain government, but the savior cannot be constrained by such petty inconveniences. The releasing of the tethers and streamlining the methodology leads only one place, tyranny, and tyranny inevitably leads to one thing, despotic ruin.

 

This last revelation finished the slide defined so accurately by Aristotle who stated, “Republics decline into democracies and democracies degenerate into despotisms.” The Republic was seen as the finest form of governance no matter the style, be it direct elections, parliamentary or anything between or alongside where the people hold the power and the government has to respect the people’s power. With time the republic governance reaches a point where their society actually needs minimal government and definitely does not need any interventions, new laws, programs or anything else but the government has to find relevance in order to form promises around which will grant them the support of the people and result in their next election. This leads to demagoguery and populism which tend to bring an end to the slow and deliberate governance and replace it with governance which has a tendency to divide the populace into groups based on positions on issues, some real and some manufactured by the politicians themselves. Such governance works by promising larger groups of citizens benefits which will be paid for by smaller groups treasure, usually unwarranted wealth made by abusing the workers and these political riders of white horses topped with a wide brimmed white Stetson hat riding off into the sunset after collecting the votes of the masses. This results in a government which will end in bloated inefficiency where the promises have far outstripped revenue collection and has built a deficit which only grows along with the government. The collection institutions are inefficient often using half the collected wealth simply to finance their department making it obvious an impediment to balancing the budget as that cost is rarely figured into the formulas promoted by the political charlatans.

 

As noted above the situation reaches some critical point where the population is primed for a savior, the one who can return sanity and prosperous times. This promise keeps growing and as this savior has made some progress they start to complain how the government itself is preventing them from rescuing the society from itself. Slowly but surely they strip down the government taking over one layer after another until they no longer stand for reelection, their continued leadership has been accepted as permanent. Soon the other governing bodies are replaced with sycophants and lackeys making them simply the echoes of the dictator allowing for them to hold ultimate power and makes for efficiency in all operations which saves revenue which further permits the dictator to show success after success.

 

But even an all-powerful dictator runs into problems eventually as they too continue promising more and more until it becomes necessary to find new sources of revenues. This has historically led to wars which eventually make for the end of the rule of dictators as once they start to attack neighbors, the neighbors are likely to form alliances and end the spread and conquest of the dictator and after conquest the people may eventually make their way back to representative governance. The one rule is that the generation which falls and allows the rise of a demigod will not return to free governance with it more often taking many years, even centuries, before the people will be permitted to rule themselves. This is evident today as Europe and the Western world is slowly lurching its way down that well-worn path to ruin while developing nations have shown a sign of seeking to develop representative republic governance, what Aristotle, Plato and Socrates all believed was the most favorable form of governance.

 

Where on this merry-go-round your nation is can be figured simply by measuring the freedom each has as an individual and the size and scope of the governance. In all situations where the people are more powerful than the government and are capable of changing the entirety of their legislature and their leaders with regular elections, that would point to a society with a great deal of freedom and is a republic. With the power shared or favoring the government agencies over the people, then one is likely no longer in a republic but in a mere democracy, a good place from which an engaged population can turn things around. But if the governance is under a single person or small cabal which is unelected and not dependent on the approval of the people and rule as they wish, that is the final stop of a democracy where it dies and will not be reborn during the lifetime of any of its citizens, even any infants born during the year of the final elections, a meaningless election at that.

 

That is both the end of freedom and the start of the path back to liberty, freedom and the rights of man. The unfortunate truth is that the vast majority of humankind has never known freedom or even truly elected governance and probably never will. For this majority of the planet will require great expenditures by the free world to instruct, educate, form and develop the basics, principles and understanding of the mechanisms required. After the entire world finds itself on the merry-go-round where we slide from freedom to despotism and finally revolution and a return to republic and the new optimism which will eventually end in disappointment until humankind learns to control their appetites and refuse to follow demigods who promise perfection and untold riches and joys, delivering none of them and few promises being realized. Perhaps that is our fate or maybe we will eventually learn to control our slide of our own personal weaknesses. Perhaps we will learn and our species finally break free of petty differences, greed and acting in a manner which eventually leads to our subjugation when our greed outpaces our good sense. Perhaps.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

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