Beyond the Cusp

April 23, 2018

The State Department is Playing Hide the Evidence

 

President Trump has been out to have the Palestinian Authority, Mahmoud Abbas and UNWRA* and other related Palestinian groups stand responsible for their actions, especially when those actions stand in direct opposition to their words spoken in English, especially when spoken to the United States authorities. The paying of salaries to terrorists in Israeli prisons and pensions to the families of terrorists who have died in the commission of their attacks, all these payments have been based on the numbers of Israelis murdered, has become one of the items which President Trump has insisted, under pain of forgoing funding, must be terminated by Palestinian governance. When the Palestinian Authority transferred these payments to be paid by the PLO which the Palestinian Authority would provide the funds for their making these payments and then told the State Department that these payments were no longer made by the Palestinian Authority, the State Department informed the Congress and the White House that these payments had stopped. The State department knew of the new arrangement for paying these terrorist rewards and that it was simply transferred to be paid through the PLO with the Palestinian Authority providing the funds, a hide the payment through a subsidiary of the government subterfuge. The White House and the Congress both were already aware of the conniving and underhanded scheming Mahmoud Abbas and the half-truth the Palestinian Authority was attempting to pass by President Trump to allow the continued full funding of the Palestinian Authority.

 

Seal of the United States Department of State

Seal of the United States Department of State

 

Now we have a new State Department attempt to protect the Palestinian Authority and UNRWA from even more trouble as the GAO** completes their investigation of the Palestinian Authority school books now used by UNRWA. As the GAO readies to present their results of their study of the Palestinian Authority schoolbooks now used by UNRWA, they are required to allow the State Department to consider how the report will be rated. And what did the ever Palestinian Arab loving State Department rate this report? The State Department indicated the report will need to be classified and cannot be released publicly. The public and the rest of the world will not be permitted to know the contents of these textbooks reviewed by the GAO because the State Department finds that they might pose a threat to their beloved Palestinians. One can only wonder why the State Department feels that this information needs to be classified such that nobody from the public, the media or anybody lacking a security clearance, which can include members of Congress and the White House who have yet to be cleared for Classified information. Actually, one does not need to wonder as they can read UNRWA’s Anti-Peace Curriculum Violates UN Charter and learn that there still exist problems with the curricula replete with links to the pertinent information and sources. Further, Near East Policy Research Director David Bedein briefed Senator James Risch (R-Idaho), chairman of the United States Senate Near East Subcommittee of the United States Foreign Relations Committee on Tuesday, September 13, 2016 where he reported on the reality on the presumably new textbooks provided UNRWA by the Palestinian Authority. In addition to the article, there are plentiful links to the files which served to provide the background for David Bedein’s presentation to Senator James Risch (R-Idaho) and his legislative director, Chris Socha, and are listed at the bottom of this article. Let the State Department try and protect their precious little friends at the expense of Israel, but it does not have to be at the expense of the public or President Trump or anybody who desires to know the truth and not have the time, resources or valid reason for receiving a security clearance to be able to read the GAO report.

 

But all of this is just the tip of the iceberg that describes the lengths the State Department has gone to in order to aid not only the Palestinian Authority and the PLO and other terror entities surrounding Israel but in aiding the enemies of the United States over the years. During World War II it has been reported that the Government officials from the State Department to the FBI to President Franklin Roosevelt himself argued that refugees posed a serious threat to national security. Further in this same article it states, “As the historian Deborah Lipstadt points out in her book Beyond Belief, The New Republic portrayed the government’s attitude as ‘persecuting the refugee.’ The Nation didn’t believe that the State Department could ‘cite a single instance of forced espionage.’ But these voices were drowned out in the name of national security.” To read more about the actions by the State Department as reported in a Treasury Department investigation into the State Department actions intentionally applied to prevent news of the Holocaust from surfacing and preventing allowing Jews to escape that genocide by refusing entry and dragging out refugee investigations and perpetrating any delaying tactic available in preventing the Jews escaping to the United States in this article. Obviously, the State Department has not altered their policies regarding interests which have any favorable relationship with the Jewish People. This is perfectly inline with the State Department recommendation to President Truman not to recognize Israel when she declared her independence and coming into the world as a nation. But then, things have not changed even the slightest as the State Department continues to refuse to allow documents for Jews from Jerusalem to state that they are from within Israel as reported here. There are some things which will never change and the State Department distaste for Jewish People and the Jewish State is likely amongst them. Their actions have always been bent towards the Arabs as their fear of the oil weapon from the Arabs might strike again. Of course, that does not explain their preventing Jews from escaping the Holocaust and their attempts to prevent the entire truth of what was being done to the Jews of Europe by the Nazis and cannot be explained by oil. Maybe it is not as much the Arab oil as it is the Jewish People that the State Department has problems with and why they so consistently work for the enemies of the Jews. We will leave that for our readers to decide.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

*UNRWA = United Nations Relief and Works Agency

** GAO = Government Accountability Office

 

 

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April 13, 2018

How Will the Arab-Israeli Conflict Finally End?

 

There has never been a conflict which ended while both parties were still capable of continuing the fight, neither side has achieved their ultimate goal and neither side has decided the fight is no longer viable militarily, monetarily, politically or publically supported. The Arab-Israeli conflict will not be any different. There will not be any peace agreement no matter the publicity about how it solves the differences in a means which is amicable for both sides. The reason for this comes down to the basic and mutually opposed, antithetical and the sides are inimical. The root of the problem is not territorial which has been how all attempts have been based for settling the differences. The differences are religious as well as political and social. The Arab side is based partially on the Quran and further on their self-conceived belief that they are undefeatable. The Israeli side is based on the Biblical promise that there would come a time when the Jewish People would be gathered by Hashem returning to the lands promised to Avraham in Genesis. What the central problem boils down to is the Jews believe that they are to return to their biblical homeland while the Arabs believe that they are superior in all things military and cannot be defeated and thus no lands which they have held be permitted to be occupied by another people. So the Jews have this Zionist belief that their return to Israel is a promise from Hashem and thus cannot be prevented and once returned will last through the coming of the Moshiach while the Arabs believe that the existence of Israel is an affront to them as a people and against the Quranic promise that they will never lose lands once they have implanted Islam on that land. The simplest explanation is the Jews believe in Israel as permanent and the Arabs believe Israel must be destroyed and obviously, these are incompatible and mutually opposed.

 

What needs to be understood is that these same Arab nations forced out their Jews between 1948 and 1972, most before 1960 (see map below). This is the problem as it exists and will continue to exist until one side proves victorious in their desire and the other side accepts that reality. If the Arabs permit peace with the existence of Israel, then peace is possible. As the Arabs have already made very clear, that will never happen and they will continue to pursue the destruction of Israel and the death of the Jews until the end of time. That brings us to the Arab version of peace where Israel has been exterminated and millions of Jews have fallen before the marauding victorious Arab armies, charred remains of a nuclear holocaust or corralled into camps to be exterminated or converted to Islam. Israel will simply take whatever measures she needs to keep Israelis alive and protected which means that there is no solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict and the world should simply walk away and leave us to one another. Obviously, only one side will get their way when all is said and done. The next question is one which requires some thought and hopefully the world can find an answer. Why is the outcome of this conflict seemingly so important to the world that a nation about the size of the state of New Jersey, a rather small nation as far as square kilometers are concerned, yet Israel is an obsession for the United Nations, European Union, and much of the rest of the world and, lastly, the United States. Does anybody have any ideas as to why this little nation of Israel takes center stage for so much of the world? There is a simple reason which the leaders of the world understand and some are taking what would appear to be a counterintuitive position. According to doctrines written in numerous societies’ compendiums from ancient histories from the beginning of writing including stories even older which were passed down through oral rote memory up to some of the most recent philosophical political theorems have equated the existence of the Jewish People and their final permanence in the Promised Lands with the survival of human civilization. The Jewish Bible told of the eventual return of the Jews to their lands as was also reported in other ancient histories. In the Bible, the return of the Jews would be a permanent return and within a short period of time, all the Jews would return to their promised lands.

 

Jews forced from Arab World Between 1948 and 1972

Jews forced from Arab World Between 1948 and 1972

 

Many have claimed that this is impossible as such a complete return would virtually double the population of Israel. Well, if that were true it would be wonderful. First a little bit of Jewish history in relation to their former returns, the exodus from Egypt and their return after Cyrus the great freed the Jewish People from Babylonian occupation and granted them semiautonomous rule. Historians have estimated that somewhere from twenty to thirty-five percent of the Jews left Egypt with the remainder deciding that a life under Egyptian rule to be preferable to the responsibilities of freedom and these Jews disappeared into the stretching of time. The end of the Babylonian Exile resulted in twenty to thirty-five percent of the Jews returning to the Promised Lands to build the Second Temple while the remainder were dazzled by the advance Persian civilization and remained with the Persians and these Jews disappeared into the stretching of time. The current return to the Promised Lands will result in double the response of the former returns from exile thus the Jewish People can expect forty to seventy percent of the total numbers of Jews returning. This would result in a mere twenty percent to a maximum of forty to forty-five percent of the European and American Jews returning to Israel with the rest disappearing into the stretching of time. Disappearing into the stretching of time can also be used to describe what happened to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel which were the Northern Kingdom of Israel which fell first with the Kingdom of Judea which included the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. Basically we are using that phrase to describe the tribes and peoples of the Jews who disappeared from the known collection of the Jewish People. What has been amazing has been that numbers of these tribes have reemerged and proven their lineage and have been reincorporated into modern Israel. The return of these lost tribes has added much variety of peoples to the population which will serve the Jewish People as we face our future.

 

There are those who continue to claim that soon there will be thousands, possibly tens or hundreds of thousands of Jews returning to Israel very soon placing an economic strain as well as making the housing situation dire until sufficient housing can be built. Many claim that such an influx will require extensive use of lands in the south in the Negev Desert. Currently there are approximately seven and three-quarter million Jews outside of Israel. Almost five and three-quarter million reside in the United States, another half million in France, just over a third million in Canada and just over a quarter million in Britain. Currently the majority of the Jews coming to Israel are from France, the Ukraine and Russia. Looking at this and one will notice that of the three nations from which the majority of Jews making Aliyah, only one is amongst the four largest populations of Jews outside of Israel. The Jewish population in the United States, as well as Canada to some extent, lives in insular communities where much of their neighborhoods all belong the same synagogue or ones of similar denomination, Reform, Conservative and Orthodox. The Orthodox Jews are probably in the most tightly knit communities.

 

World Religious Population Distributions

World Religious Population Distributions

 

Due to their tightly knit communities and their use of private Yeshiva schooling, their children marry within the community. With Conservative and Reform, and other smaller offshoots of Judaism outside the Orthodox communities, often use the public schools and reside in more mixed neighborhoods, there is a higher rate of their children marrying outside their community. The Conservative and Reform Jews make up the majority of Jews in the United States and with the intermarriage rate reaching almost seventy percent of their children, how much longer will their children and grandchildren continue to follow Judaism? Many of these intermarried children choose to try to raise their children in both Judaism and Christianity. This leads to confusion and due to peer pressure and the basic Christian dominance in American society, the Christianity wins out in most cases and these children are even more likely to intermarry and simply leave the Jewish faith completely. There is something which could alter the adopted non-Jewish identity some of these Jews will adopt. It is the same thing which has occurred to Jews over history many of the times when they become overly assimilated. It happened in Persia with Hamas, it happened in Germany with Hitler and the Nazis and it could even happen in the United States. What happens is the steep rise in anti-Semitism which looks at the grandparents or even further back and decide who is Jewish by this determination. This makes many Jews who had adopted to leave Judaism suddenly returned to their Jewish roots not by any choice of their own.

 

The more recent of the historical examples is the easier one to describe. The German Jews were well accepted in their society and it was in Germany where Reform Judaism was born. This led to a split of the Jewish population with the Reform Jews often being the most assimilated amongst the Jewish population. There were Jews teaching in Universities and schools, as judges and lawyers, as doctors, technicians, physicists, chemists, tailors, actors, directors, writers and every other field of endeavor. They lived in mixed neighborhoods and some lived in neighborhoods apart (mostly the Orthodox). When the Nazis began to rise to power, the most assimilated Jews felt safe as they were proper Germans and Hitler meant those other Jews, the ones who lived apart and dressed in peculiar clothing and practiced a different life than the average German. Many claimed that the statements and anti-Semitism was simply an election ploy to garner votes, not something the government of Germany would ever allow to happen, after all, the Jews were amongst the highest percentage of those who fought for Germany in the Big War (World War I) and were proven real Germans. They were very much as the modern Jews in the United States are today; they denied the rise in anti-Semitism and continued on with their denial right onto the trains to the Concentration Camps.

 

Before we made Aliyah, we belonged to a Conservative Synagogue and these Jews mostly resided in an oval of our city which was anchored by our Conservative Synagogue at one pole and the reform Synagogue at the other pole. One could almost apply the formula for drawing an oval and they would incorporate well over ninety percent of the Jews in our little city. We were outliers as we resided miles outside these neighborhoods where our house was probably the only Jewish house within five to ten miles. Where we did not witness much if any outright anti-Semitism, we did hear some anti-Semitic thoughts which were part of the general beliefs and came out in idle conversations. As the area was predominantly Christian, the majority supported Israel but there were some very wrongheaded beliefs about whom and what Jews were. If you had asked these people if they were anti-Semitic they would deny even the wisp of a possibility, yet there were things they believed about Jews which were less than honest. One example was that Jews were wealthy and stuck to living with their own. Where we could not refute the living amongst their own, we easily refuted the wealth canard, as we would ask that they explain why we lived in their moderately priced neighborhood which was far from upper-middle-class, but was comfortable with older homes and white picket fences everywhere. Could these people be turned against the Jews of America, not all or even many of them but the Nazis were a minority with all the guns.

 

It does not take a majority of the people to turn an entire society into darkness, it just takes an overtly active minority of a mere fifteen to twenty-five percent with weapons and willingness to use violence and fifty percent who would start being complacent and before they could realize that things had become beyond their control, it would be too late to prevent the inevitable. The actual vote received by the Nazi Party received was thirty-seven and two-fifths percent of the popular votes. We can figure that some of these votes were made by people who were not hardcore Nazis but voted for them to remain safe as their neighborhood had so many Nazi flags in their lawns that to vote otherwise might prove to make them suspect. We need to remember that the Nazis were not exactly adverse to the use of violence, and that can persuade people to vote differently. For those who will claim that such things could never happen in the United States, then how would they explain the Philadelphia Black Panther intimidation at a voting station intimidation threats (see video below). Then there has been the use of the FBI and Justice Department as weapons against the Trump campaign during the last election which included a Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) court warrant sought and received using knowingly tainted evidence. The misconduct and weaponizing of the government is still being pealed back and who knows how many layers this onion will end up having and who else will tumble out before everything is done including possible foreign intervention against Trump from Russia and even some European allies. America is not a sacred and saintly as our sanitized school history taught us back in school, so never say that it cannot happen here.

 

 

We hope the United States continued in perpetuity as the protector of liberty and freedom for the world. We have seen one item which Israel should take to heart, that the United States is not and should never be believed to be the protector for the nation of Israel. President Obama allowing the passage of a Security Council resolution which placed almost everything beyond the Green Line as forbidden for Israelis to reside should have served as a wake-up call to the leaders of Israel from this time into the future. This would make the Palestinian Authority demand that no Jews be permitted on the lands they claim enforced by the United Nations under a Security Council resolution. This introduced a new day where support of Israel has become a partisan position where much, if not a large majority, of the Democrat Party will refuse to protect Israel without Israel meeting demands for sacrificing to the Arabs, something which would become such a threat that Israel would become difficult to defend. This is the new reality as things now appear. And the majority of non-Orthodox Jews support the Democrat Party blindly believing that it supports everything they support, and that may be valid as a measurable number of these same Jews do not actively support or care about Israel.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

April 3, 2018

As Goes France Go Europe then America

 

Over the past decade, France has witnessed just over one grisly slaughtering of a Jew each year.* Mireille Knoll, an 85-year-old Holocaust survivor, was stabbed multiple times and then left in her burning Paris apartment to bleed and burn to death simultaneously. The first was Ilan Halimi who was befriended by a woman and when she asked him to meet her for a drink, little did he know he was to become a sacrificial lamb in nearly a month of torture.** The other people residing in the apartment block had to have heard the blood curdling screams the young man released begging for help and eventually for death. After almost a month of pure hell, he was finally released as told in the article, “On February 13, at five o’clock in the morning, Ilan was first shaven, like six million other Jews, and flung into the forest by his torturers. He managed to take the mask off his eyes, and as Fofana later reported, look them straight in the eye. I am a human being, his eyes told them. He received a few knife stabs for that. Then, like many of the six million before him he was set on fire and burned alive, having been sprayed with a flammable substance. Then his tormentors left.” One of his tormentors, Fofana, upon sentence being passed stated proudly, even defiantly, “I killed a Jew, and for that I will go to Paradise.” There was no remorse or even the ability to identify with their victim as human because he was a Jew after all. These murders over the past ten years have taken everyone from children as young as three, six and ten shot in the Toulouse Jewish school shootings which also took the life of one of the school’s Rabbis and father to the youngest victims.# These were the murders just in France where the greatest numbers of European Jews reside. France’s Jewish population at last count was approximately four-hundred-fifty-thousand people. Next greatest reside in the United Kingdom with an approximate numbers of Jews of two-hundred-ninety-thousand and next is Germany with a Jewish population of approximately one-hundred-fifteen-thousand and the remainder of Europe having far less. The total European Jewish population is approximately one and one-half-million which is a mere fifteen-hundredths of one percent of Europe’s total population. That is next to nothing and yet the continent apparently finds even that few to be far too many.

 

The remainder of Europe has fewer violent acts of anti-Semitism simply due to lack of available options, available Jews of whom to victimize. As per the article “Anti-Semitism is still alive in Germany as Jews face ‘disturbing’ discrimination,” the combination of Islamic immigrant anti-Semitism and resurgent ‘right-wing’ anti-Semitism has led to problematic situations. Displaying the rise of publicly expressed anti-Semitism was most obvious when in Berlin demonstrations celebrated the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the death of leading Nazi figure Rudolf Hess, on Aug. 19, 2017 (see image below). As is most usual, there is very little reporting of ‘left-wing’ anti-Semitism. Where this is a relatively new situation, the rise of anti-Semitism on the left exists and must not be given a free pass, as it is just as dangerous and real as the other forms of anti-Semitism. Alternative for Germany Party (AfD), is currently the third-largest party in the Bundestag (German Parliament) a mere four years after it was founded. The AfD drums up support with nationalist and anti-Semitic rhetoric as well as anti-immigrant chants. Some AfD members have expressed desires to have Nazi soldiers remembered as patriots. As stated, anti-Semitism is rising, one might claim rampant, across Europe as reported by the BBC in their article Fans protest during Holocaust tribute at Serie A matches where it was reported, “On Sunday at Rome’s Olympic Stadium a section of Lazio fans known as the “ultras” – known for their racist chants and often violent behaviour – left stickers of Holocaust victim Frank in a Roma jersey alongside anti-Semitic slogans such as ‘Roma fans are Jews’.

 

Berlin demonstrations celebrated the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the death of leading Nazi figure Rudolf Hess

Berlin demonstrations celebrated the commemoration of
the 30th anniversary of the death of leading Nazi figure Rudolf Hess

 

Anti-Semitism is on the rise across Europe with some places having become almost impossible for Jews to remain in their homes and even their synagogues have been firebombed. The worst of these attacks have come in Sweden with the town of Malmo amongst the most prevalent in violent acts of anti-Semitism. Malmo Mayor Ilmar Reepalu had advised Jews who want to be safe in Malmo to reject Zionism. Though he has condemned anti-Semitism, Reepalu has called Zionism a form of ‘extremism’ comparable with anti-Semitism, said the Jewish community had been ‘infiltrated’ by anti-Muslim agents and denied that Muslims perpetrated the attacks on Malmo Jews. In an article written for the Huffingtonpost titled, “Rising Anti-Semitism in Europe: History Repeating Once Again,” goes into some depth about the rising levels of anti-Semitism across Europe. European anti-Semitism is a dire threat rising once more, but then again, European anti-Semitism and its counterpart across all of the Arab and almost all the Muslim world, particularly the MENA## States. The Jews, originally the Israelites, were conquered by Babylon when the Northern Kingdom fell in 722 BCE leading to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. The remainder, Judah, the southern kingdom, was subsequently conquered by Babylon in around 610 to 605 BCE. The Judeans were eventually to be known as simply the Jews. After Babylon, the Jews were conquered and subjugated by the Persians, Greeks and Romans. The Romans dispersed the Jews as they had the Carthaginians in an effort to destroy those two peoples as well as others who the Romans destroyed. The Jews survived their dispersion and continued to be subjugated by Europeans and after the conquest by Islam in 636 CE and the subjugation of the MENA states followed soon thereafter right up to the current day. Torah and traditions and practices in the Oral Law written in the Talmud, which is a living document of Judaism where every idea and practice is discussed and argued from all sides. Some arguments are posed simply to force clarification of a concept or action being discussed and does not necessarily, or in some cases even in the wildest interpretation, actually convey Jewish thought and are used for argument only. Often it is these arguments which are cherry-picked and made public with the intent of shaming Jews and disgracing Judaism. Such practices are known false representations but still crop up in use by the anti-Semites. The MENA States (which were also the Caliphates and then the Ottoman Empire through to World War I) along with Europe often treated their Jewish populations as victim populations upon who all ills were blamed often leading to pogroms, murderous rages, burning of their Jews and other atrocities often beyond imagination. Jews would be forced from one city or nation to another over and over never really finding their real home. The vast majority of Jews have been forced from their lives and homes across the MENA States so the remaining anti-Semitism is more often targeted at Israel. Europe still has a Jewish population but it is slipping away, or should we be honest and call it what it is, fleeing.

 

There is a remaining problem, America. What makes this problem so easy to ignore is that American Jews appear oblivious to the problem. Even the New York Times has written about the lack of reaction by American Jews in their article titled “Anti-Semitism Is Rising. Why Aren’t American Jews Speaking Up? The reason is easy and even obvious to any neutral observer with even a modicum of intelligence. The answer is there are Jews who have noted the rising anti-Semitism, but their voices do not matter, as they currently are the minority. These are the Orthodox Jews who reside largely in close, long established communities in major metropolitan areas such as Cleveland, Boston, Chicago, Baltimore, Los Angeles, Greeley and, of course, New York. They are also largely conservative and vote predominantly Republican and while vocal within their community, they otherwise appear rather silent, well, that is when compared to their brethren who are far more political and rather less religious.

 

The Conservative, Reform, Reconstructionist and non-conventional Jews are vocally political and some congregations have adopted the leftist political agenda as the structure around which they build their Judaism. They run numerous NGOs which support left leaning ideas such as gun control, open borders, free abortions, free tuition, urban renewal, nuke free world and the entire plethora of similar pie in the sky, pipe dream and utopian agenda. They are blind to any kind of problems, shortcomings or other complications which make the left just as possible to make mistakes and errors in judgement as the right wing which is constantly scurrilously attacked by the left and their media allies. These politically active Jews are far more boisterous and make themselves heard and often fill the argument drowning out all else. Because they are so enamored with the left and leftist causes, they also are blind to any deficiencies and even when they do see such problems, they will find some means of explaining them away. A glaring example was the known relationship between President Obama and the Reverend Jeremiah Wright and the mutual relationship they held with Minister Louis Farrakhan, a known and severe anti-Semite. The same is true of most of the anti-Semitism prevalent on the left with such people as Linda Sarsour, one of the organizers of the Women’s March who emphatically made a statement when they stated that the Women’s Movement has no room for Zionism. Even after this statement made in order to exclude feminists if they were pro-Israel because being a Jew who believes in the right of your people to have what is granted almost all other peoples, their own nation to call home, then you cannot be a feminist. Truth is, the left is slowly but inexorably moving towards a place where in order to truly be accepted, one must first declare their hatred for the State of Israel. Now for the saddest and most distressing item, many leftist Jews see no problem with this and blindly jump onboard with defaming and attempting to destroy the Jewish State. Israel is the Jews Second Amendment, the place where Jews will be protected from all threats no matter their origins. We can only ask such Jews a simple question. When the left finally reaches the unavoidable end of their slide into anti-Zionism, anti-Israelism and their anti-religion, especially Judaism, and decides that the world must once again exterminate its Jews, where will they run?

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

* 11 Jews massacred in France, just as ISIS did in Syria by Giulio Meotti.

** The Shocking Murder of Ilan Halimi by Deborah Freund.

# France shooting: Toulouse Jewish school attack kills four

MENA = Middle East and North Africa

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