Beyond the Cusp

May 22, 2017

Trump Arrives but Nothing will Change

 

President Trump will arrive today in Israel with much anticipation and a very warm welcome. President Trump is viewed by many Israelis as a great relief after the eight years out in the unforgiven lands of wastelands and destitution being treated as a leper amongst the nations. In Israel, we were ready for such a challenge, as we have been receiving that treatment from much of the world. That is how life is when you are the Jewish amongst nations. Just because Presidents have changed and there is hope for a brighter future, very few here are expecting much from this trip. This is going to have been a “Hello, how are you?” shake your hands kind of trip filled with photo opportunities and lots of glad-handing. The real work will begin in earnest a few weeks after this trip has completed and everybody back in Washington D.C. have had their comments and predictions as to what to do next, even unfortunately including the State Department. Where the Secretary of State may be more inclined to have an open mind about the Palestinian-Israel situation, the State Department has had an anti-Israel bias which has only intensified with time and any change does not appear to be in the cards for the near term future. The trouble comes when the advisory notices from the State Department start to pile up and the negative feed of anti-Israel bias seeps into policy once again. We have watched this play out before and we hold onto the slim possibility that President Trump truly is something completely new and capable of holding his own thoughts as valid and resisting pressures from outside influences no matter who they are. President Trump has to have a decent feel for people or he would have been a disaster in business and never have had near the success he has including winning the Presidency when everyone stood against him in both established parties. That alone gives us hope that he will see more clearly than any have previously. Presidents Bill Clinton and George W. Bush both gave efforts to do as little harm as possible. President Clinton got Yasser Arafat to set the terms for peace and got Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak to agree which panicked Arafat into fleeing the conference and setting in motion the Second Intifada killing over a thousand Israelis just to prove he really would never accept any peace no matter how much Israel was willing to give up. That position has not changed despite the change to Mahmoud Abbas as the leader of the Palestinian Authority (PA).

 

Camp David Talks on a Break as President Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat and Prime Minister Ehud Barak Stroll the Grounds of the Complex Located Ten Miles North of Frederick, Maryland

Camp David Talks on a Break as President Bill Clinton, Yasser Arafat and Prime Minister Ehud Barak Stroll the Grounds of the Complex Located Ten Miles North of Frederick, Maryland

 

The problem is not just with the PA as the Arab League met after the Six Day War and drafted what has become known as the Khartoum Resolution with its infamous Three No’s; “No peace with Israel, No recognition of Israel, No negotiations with Israel.” Many politicians from every corner of the globe, NGO members and administrators from United Nations agencies have pointed to the so-called negotiations which have been held between the PA and Israel as proof that the PA are different and are really working towards a peaceful resolution to the conflict. These same sources all make the same claim time after time that if only Israel would give the Arabs a little more, then peace would be at hand. Israel has given that little more at almost every turn for almost twenty-five years such that we have passed that little more ages ago and still the demands have not changed. All one need do is peruse the PA and UNRWA textbooks and look at the maps within and the truth will simply jump off the page and bite you. There is no Israel between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, just Palestine (see below). Even Hamastan in Gaza is represented as part of Palestine and this is so acceptable that even in Gaza Hamas has approved and uses these books. The difference between the schools in Gaza and in the PA schools is whether Hamas or the PA will rule Palestine. While Hamas and the PA may disagree on who will rule over Palestine, they share the vision of a world without Israel and with the Jews living in Israel cleansed from the land.

 

Palestinian Textbook Maps depicting Palestine as replacing Israel, not sharing the land in peace and security as the Europeans and the rest of the West insist to misrepresent

 

There is an understanding the Arabs living in the PA administered areas have that when their leaders speak to the West or even in general using English, then what they say very well could be lies stated to placate the West and gain advantage over Israel; but when they speak in Arabic, then their words are true and they mean what they say. There is a sort of ungentlemen’s agreement between the Arabs, especially from Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the PA, that words they speak in Arabic are of such a language barrier that they cannot be translated and reported in the mainstream media. There is an exception for those willing to spend the time wrangling through the flood of information available where their newspapers, broadcasts and media is translated into English. There are three services which do this as a service for those truly interested in the truth. These NGO’s are listed below with their identifying graphics. Taking a stroll or simply searching a subject which you are particularly interested in the actual views and policies of the various Middle East nations and terror organizations such as Hezballah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad, PLO, Muslim Brotherhood, Islamic State and others or the various leaders of the various nations such as Iran, Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the others throughout the MENA (Middle East and North Africa) nations one can get an eye-full in a single afternoon. If we may quote the Christian Bible for a change, let us quote John 8:32 which states, “And you will know the truth, and the truth will set free you.”

 

Palestinian Media Watch

Palestinian Media Watch

The Middle East Media Research Institute

The Middle East Media Research Institute

Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America

Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America

Back to President Trump, his trip and the ramifications. The trip will be a success for all sides. There will be those who support the President who will remark at the difference between President Obama on his first visit to Saudi Arabia and the deep bow almost as if kissing the King’s ring and Trump acting as an equal while the anti-Trump side will be showing Trump leaning over to allow a medallion being bestowed upon him to be placed over his head and screaming, “See, Trump bowed down to the Saudis too!” The media will probably claim that the trip was simply a series of missed opportunities as President Trump was not stopping at these places in order to make any grand gestures or earth-shaking policy statements, he was making what many Presidents have done, taking three or four overseas jaunts hitting three or four spots in one week simply to shake hands and smile as a meet and greet. Then, upon their return with a better feel for the people and the attitudes, the real work can begin. As far as solving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict or the greater Arab-Israeli conflict, we have our doubts that President Trump will waste much more effort than to set up a meet between Abbas and Netanyahu and announce that if the two leaders are serious and care to meet and get the major work done between themselves, then President Trump will be helpful in closing the deal and getting past the last points of contention but that he does not plan on holding their hands and pressing them forward, they need to manage their relations on their own without any outside pressures. He is likely to claim that the only path to true and lasting peace is through honest negotiations between the two leaders and that anything he could do to facilitate, but not to mediate, their reaching an agreement he will be glad to assist. But President Trump will likely make clear that he will not be making trips back and forth and his Secretary of State will not be on a plane every other week running to put out the latest flare-up or dousing fires of contention, the leaders themselves need to act like men and either settle their differences or make clear that they are not interested in meeting to forge an agreement. President Trump might have told Abbas and Netanyahu in private while meeting them that it will not be any skin off of his back if the Arabs and Israelis refuse to find some middle ground but do not ask the United States to come and rescue either of them from the actions of the other as whatever comes will likely be exactly what both sides deserve. If when there is a flare-up and President Trump then repeats this mantra reminding the two sides of his warnings and telling the world of this position, then maybe some truth will finally emerge about which side desires peace and which side loves death, even the death of their own as theirs is a rush to go to Heaven and leave the earthly tragedies behind. Such a position may prove to be the wisest of all regarding the Middle East as the worst problems facing the world are numerous and only one serious problem derives from the Middle East, and it does not concern the Palestinians and Israelis and their little difficulties.

 

The problem is what can be done to tame Iran, bring some collective end to the devastation ongoing in Syria, reconstitute Lebanon into a productive nation once again and prevent the Iranians from becoming a nuclear armed nation with ICBM’s and nuclear warheads set atop them threatening the entire world with a devastating war resembling Armageddon. Another pressing issue is how to prevent allowing Iran to forge their desired Shiite crescent from the Indian Ocean on the Iranian east coast across Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon to the Mediterranean Sea on their western coasts. This will be dependent upon forging a Sunni controlled southeastern Syria along their border with Iraq and their Shiites in the southern half of the nation from Baghdad south which could be accomplished by forging the Kurdish homelands which the British had promised them but instead struck an oil deal cheating the Kurds from the reestablishment of their homeland similar to what the Peel Commission attempted to do to the Jews and Israel. Fortunately, the Peel Commission and the follow-up Woodhead Commission had all of their solution completely rejected outright by the Arab representatives who demanded that all the land be given to the creation of Palestine and they would take care of any needs the Jewish residents would have and they would be cared for and permitted rights under Arab rule. This solution met with Jewish opposition. Supporting a Kurdistan and recommending that Turkey allow its Kurds to relocate to Kurdistan leaving Turkey and thus no longer posing any problem for President Erdoğan and removing what Turkey has claimed to be a disruptive minority from within their borders. Such a solution would also allow for the Yazidis to have a place, which would accept them as they are related to the Kurds rather closely. The Sunnis in central Iraq could be offered to also reside within Kurdistan if they so choose which would likely be seen as preferable to living under the Shiite governance of Iraq and this would solidify the Kurdish territories giving them some regional depth and defendable borders. Bashir al-Assad and his Russian backers could then be allowed the western regions where the Alawite tribe resides and the Druze could choose under whom they would prefer to live or might even be permitted their own lands if this would be preferred and a solution worked out with Assad and Putin. One would have to wonder if Trump would be permitted to speak with Putin concerning Syria or would that be considered further collusion?

 

The real problematic front facing the Trump team is the Pacific Rim and in particular North Korea and China. North Korea is making threats and causing unrest probably for two reasons. The first is as a test of the mettle of the new American President and the second is probably an attempt to garner a large cash infusion to get him to settle down. What President Trump should do regarding Kim Jong Un is a difficult proposition. The North Korean dictator is the least rational member of his family yet to have taken over the nation and his actions resemble those of an unstable mind filled with paranoia and delusions of grandeur as well as suspicions of a world fearful enough for him to have his way with the rest of the world. He appears to be just sufficiently outside rational that it may even be a difficult task for the Chinese to control him without possibly taking drastic actions such as completely terminating all relations and trade leaving Kim Jong Un without a friend in the world. Such a move would require it come in the near future before Kim Jong Un and Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, the Iranian Supreme Leader and an equally unstable mind which is filled with ideas of Iran returning to the glory of Persia and being the leaders of the Islamic world causing massive defections from the Sunnis to Shiites as Iran proves to be the strong horse after crippling Saudi Arabia and taking the black triangle of oil fields which spans Kuwait, southern Iraq and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Such an expansion by Iran would require the Shiite crescent discussed above to be complete otherwise Iran would not have the bases required in the Mediterranean Sea. The Iranians are already controlling the Straight of Hormuz, which ties up the Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti oil lanes, and the Bab-el-Mandeb, which is a straight that controls the exit at the south end of the Red Sea thus controlling the Suez Canal and world shipping channels. What we have reported on previously, Iran and North Korea have been cooperating working to advance their mutual scientific workings on missile technology and nuclear weapons designs. This has been an alignment that the world has been ignoring to its own peril. This is where President Trump will find his greatest challenges and where he should be placing his attentions as soon as he returns to Washington D.C. Should President Trump find a path with assistance from the Chinese on North Korea and Russians on Iran and defuse their combined powder keg, then he will have accomplished much and saved the world from a crisis which could easily mushroom into the next world war and make it a very short but devastating war with the use of nuclear weapons as EMP devices and also using them to destroy major metropolitan centers such as London, New York, Los Angeles and numerous other metropolises. The Iran-North Korean Axis could be even more devastating than the German-Italian-Japanese Axis during World War II. Let us hope that a World War III can be avoided and that President Trump can show the necessary leadership to prevent such a devastating conflagration from striking our world. Any nuclear strike from North Korea and/or Iran would necessitate a nuclear response before they could use further such weapons and devastate even more targets throughout Europe, the United States and the developed world. This is President Trump’s challenge number one.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

May 16, 2017

Our Letter for the Upcoming Presidential Middle East Visit

 

Dear President Trump,

 

We are honored and glad you are visiting the Middle East so early in your Presidency and thought we would try to catch you up on a few items which have occurred immediately before your visit this past week which your staff may not have had the time or even seen in the news and thought these important for your making fair assessments. We are not even going to make aspersions about the loose relations between Mahmoud Abbas and the reality. Instead, we will like to tell you about an example of the fruit of the education for peace which students of Bir Zeit University put on display in the recent student elections. The article in which we read about this was written by Stephen M. Flatow titled, Palestinian Voters Display the “Culture of Peace”.

 

First, we would like to give the good news. Dean of Student Affairs of Bir Zeit University, Muhammad al-Ahmad, reports that a full seventy-four percent of the student body cast votes in the election. That makes everything about this election to be very representative of the attitudes of the student body. Keep in mind that these students were born and raised entirely under Palestinian Authority (PA), educated in PA schools, PA elementary, PA middle schools and PA high schools. As Stephen M. Flatow also made evident, these students were weaned on PA television, PA radio, PA newspapers and PA indoctrinations morning, noon and night. So, one could fairly conclude that their parties would represent the culture and education of peace under which Mahmoud Abbas had told you they educate and raise their children and grandchildren, these students in other words, were raised and educated, one could say steeped in. So, what were the winning parties and their political ties and leanings? Winning a plurality of the fifty-one seats is the party with the name of “Al Wafaa Islamic Bloc” which garnered twenty-five seats. The Al Wafaa Islamic Bloc has come out ahead for the third year in a row. This party is aligned with Hamas which is dedicated not only to the elimination of the State of Israel but also dedicates itself in their charter to the death of every Jew in the world, that includes the United States which has the second largest Jewish population of which a number are family members of yours. The next most popular party receiving twenty-two seats was the “Martyr Yassir Arafat” party. Just in case you missed the Yassir Arafat years, this party is loyal to the Palestinian Authority and the PLO, which though not dedicated to the murder of every Jew everywhere, they still call for the destruction of Israel and establishing Palestine from the (Jordan) River to the (Mediterranean) Sea. The final party receiving the final four seats is the “Al Qutub” aligned with the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, a group still on the United States list of terrorist elements. These students have a concept of peace coming only upon the grave of the State of Israel.

 

Hebron (ancient Hevron) also had an election recently and as reported in an article titled “Palestinian Terrorist in Killing of 6 Jews Elected Hebron Mayor” in the Times of Israel. The Palestinian terrorist to which they refer is Tayseer Abu Sneineh who was convicted of the murder of six Israelis in 1980. Mr. President, it was Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas who selected Tayseer Abu Sneineh to represent Fatah at the head of the party list making it all but certain to win the Saturday Hebron PA elections. Abu Sneineh and three other terrorists on May 2, 1980, assaulted a group of Israelis using military tactics of firing rifles and lobbing grenades in Hebron murdering six people. Amongst those murdered were United States citizens Tzvi Glatt and Eli HaZe’ev, Canadian Shmuel Marmelstein along with the three Israelis; Hanan Krauthammer, Gershon Klein and Ya’akov Zimmerman and additionally another 20 people were injured in the attack. All four terrorists were sentenced to life in prison but were amongst those the PLO demanded be released as part of a deal later in the decade. The take away point here is this was the choice of Mahmoud Abbas to lead the party in elections, Tayseer Abu Sneineh, terrorist and co-murderer of six people and almost many more with twenty others injured in the attack and a murderer of two American citizens. This is his idea of a program and future of peace. Below is a video made by featuring a Palestinian from Hebron who presents an entirely different view and who claims to speak for many others in Hebron, many who likely have been disenfranchised by the PA and Mahmoud Abbas. His words are worthy of attention as they give an entirely differing view of what would be best for the citizens under the rule of the PA.

 

 

There is little to add to what was spoken by Sheikh Ashraf Jabri. The message he gave was easily understood, the Sheikh represents many Hebron Arabs who desire to live under Israeli sovereignty. Where his message was largely intended for Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu, and we hope he has heard the message, but it also would be wise for you to heed his words as well. You might ask his question which he desired for Mahmoud Abbas to answer, namely where has all the money gone. We can give a partial answer; a large amount is going for the new royal complex from which Mahmoud Abbas believes he will rule for a long time. This complex is pictured below with a complete description included. We can add one more figure, it was estimated to cost somewhere around thirteen-million dollars, which is before cost overruns and other snags along the way. Look at the building and ask why it contains billets for guards’ quarters unless Abbas fears that perhaps he is not as popular as he might desire. Perhaps that is also why there have been no elections in the PA controlled area for his office, for any of the myriad of positions he holds. Perhaps any elections which are held are not as honest as we are led to believe and that is how Fatah always wins as Hamas and others are not permitted to place candidates and even if they did, as Stalin once pointed out, it is who counts the ballots that matters, not who casts them. We will leave the rest for your aids and advisors to fill in the blanks.

 

Mamoud Abbas planned masion estimated cosr of thirteen million dollars but will end up costing far more after required kickbacks

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

April 15, 2017

Is There Truly a Disparity Between Islamic and Christian Anti-Semitism?

 

If one were to look at the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) report on anti-Semitism worldwide one would immediately conclude that the crucial area where anti-Semitism is most pronounced is in the MENA* Arab and Muslim nations. There could be a number of reasons behind this seemingly obvious disparity mostly of which the ADL would claim it was due to greater sensitivity, civility and acceptance of other people’s religions, race, nationality and other differences in the developed world. On the other hand, it might also simply be due to education to answer questions as expected rather than giving honest answers. Another reason could be that due to programming through the education and media that people are not aware that they hold prejudicial thoughts and opinions. It might also be that such thoughts have been eradicated in the developed world, though that would be a miracle. Why am I so cynical about this? Well, it could be due to personal experiences I have had which indicate that perhaps the polling is not accurate because people have really been trained to hide socially undesirable thoughts. Perhaps dosing everybody with sodium pentothal before having them take such surveys would produce far different results, but we will never know.

 

Anti-Semitism figure and acts of vandalism

 

What were some of these experiences? Well, first allow me to give some general observations before we get to a few examples. I should first tell you that these are all observations from the United States as I lack any time even visiting Europe never having given travel there much consideration. I have come to surmise that Israel had a better acceptance and respect than Jews in the United States. Many Christians are confused over how and why some, too many by their thoughts, American Jews appear to hate Israel. Being a lifelong Zionist I was unable to assist them in answering this question as I share their disbelief and puzzlement. All I was ever able to say was that they placed their leftist politics ahead of their Torah and religion. That always drew some of the strangest looks, often a cross between complete inability to understand and simple bewilderment as if told two completely contrary things and claiming they were both true. Many had no ability to comprehend politics trumping religion.

 

Levels in Percentages of Anti-Semitism Worldwide by Regions

Levels in Percentages of Anti-Semitism Worldwide by Regions

 

One thing which made my ability to get some insights many never could was due to a select number of unique items. First, as a blonde haired, blue eyed, Nordic appearing person; nobody would ever suspect that I am Jewish without being told. The other main item was that I usually, most of my life, did not reside in predominantly Jewish neighborhoods. More often than not there were not likely to be any other Jews living within ten miles of where I usually could afford to live. The combination of these two small items placed me in a unique position to gauge real feelings and listen to people when the subject of Jews or Israel came into the conversations. When I was in a mix of people where a few knew I was Jewish, you could see pained looks on their faces when somebody spouted something hateful about Jews and they would all glance at me to see my reactions. Anybody who knows me well realizes that for the most part I do not have outward emotions very often. This allowed for such people to really hang themselves and allowed me to watch the reactions of others and whether or not they would respond defending Jews from hatreds, more often than not they would not. The most frequent reaction from those harboring no hatred or even love for the Jews was to hang their heads somewhat as if withdrawing protected them from the world and hate being spewed. Seldom did anyone speak up and when I would speak up others would often wince as if I were breaking some code and risking life and limb. On a few and very rare occasions it appeared that my defending Jews was unwelcome by the person who held anti-Semitic feelings as if I were impugning their honesty and becoming a threat to their reputation. Things never escalated to blows but I have lost presumed acquaintances and welcomed being relieved of needing to tolerate such people.

 

There was one particular phrase which I encountered more than I would have preferred when people first found out that I was Jewish. Too many responded to my telling them I was Jewish was initially that I was kidding and I would assure them that I was not joking and really am Jewish. Then sometimes, as stated too often, they would speak that phrase, “You do not act like a Jew.” This would almost universally receive my response, “Really, exactly how does a Jew act so I can work on that?” This would immediately make virtually all of them realize that they had revealed a bias which they had not realized they even suffered from. They would apologize and we would make some uncomfortable exchanges and then work our way past it. Fortunately many of these people would then ask questions about Jews and Judaism as they realized that they were living with suspicions and conceptions which they needed to get beyond. Perhaps these events for some became a good thing as they led to their receiving some education on the subject which they needed and probably would not have ever received such otherwise.

 

One thing I learned was that even those who held extremely negative opinions of Jews did not consider themselves to be anti-Semitic. Their feelings were that they were simply being honest and that the problem was with the Jews, not with them. They would tell you it did not bother them if somebody was a Jew and they would not hold their being Jewish against them. They just did not like Jews because Jews were simply not very nice and did not accept others who were not Jews. This revelation often came out claiming that the Jews are very clannish, you know, they stick together and watch out for each other against everybody else. Sometimes, when my mood was less than forgiving or one of these people got under my skin, I would make some comment about the Jewish mother ship hiding on the other side of the Moon and how I was still waiting for my washroom key. That would always get their attention at which point I would inform them they had made their statement in the presence of a Jew, sometimes I might instead say the enemy before informing them I was Jewish. There were those few who when hearing I was Jewish, sometimes one of the other people would break this news to them, they would get in a huff and sometimes even become threatening which never ended well but fortunately never led to actual violence.

 

What I learned in my sixty years of research, well, maybe less as I do not remember the first twenty very well, is that there is some degree of misconceptions as to how Jews act and exactly what a Jew is and what being Jewish means. As a youth I remember being accused more than once with having murdered Jesus. The first time was when I was three by the three year old girl next door who probably heard it in a sermon or from her parents as she was not old enough and proved as she grew not to hate anyone as near as I could tell. I came home crying as it upset me and asked my Mother who was this Jesus person and when did I kill him? I must have really been upset as I do not remember what my Mother told me or how she handled it but I am sure it was sensibly and kindly as that was how she handled everything except punishment for breaking rules, that she was strict and rather harsh which is why I tried not to break her rules. I learned though that there is a level of animus towards Jews, a sort of undercurrent which flows through more of the society than we care to admit. Mostly it is a misunderstanding due largely to the Jews being a complete unknown thus people can only theorize exactly what a Jew must be, what they are like, how they feel about others and other generalities. Much of this is filled in by parents, people around them, their religious teachings and that favorite of all peoples everywhere, suspicions. The one overriding thought is that Jews are simply somehow different from regular people. As a group they are too successful, too wealthy, too much the other and this causes suspicions which lead to distrust. This was mostly what was behind that phrase that I did not act or seem like a Jew to these people as I was not different and shared many of their ideas and principles. My being a Jew troubled them as it shook their entire concept of what a Jew would be.

 

What can we conclude from my experiences? Well, first allow me to point out I lived throughout the United States and moved more times than I care to remember. I worked constructions, retail sales and management, military, airfield crash rescue firefighter, roofing, railroad tie decorative restraining walls (the tallest was over fifty feet), medical electronic repair and calibration, satellite communications electronics, electronic prototyping, shuttle driver and so on. I lived on both coasts, the south, the west, the mid-west, New England, the northwest, Great Lakes and near everywhere inbetween. Basically what I am conveying is my sample size was expansive, diverse and ran the gauntlet of educational backgrounds. What I found was that people are pretty much the same with the more educated simply more practiced at prevarication. The misconceptions about Jews are fairly universal and people who have such misconceptions do not believe they are prejudiced against Jew or suffer even the slightest from anti-Semitism; they believe the way they see Jews is simply normal. What is interesting is that in areas of the world where anti-Semitism is the highest, the people there also believe they are not anti-Semitic, they are simply normal and it is the Jews who are abnormal. The main difference is that in the MENA nations where anti-Semitism is measurably the highest, they realize they hate Jews but simply believe that normally everybody should hate Jews. In the developed world they simply do not believe they hold misconceptions about Jews and are simply shocked when they discover that their beliefs are very probably wrong. Unfortunately, most of the people holding misconceptions about Jews will see these exact traits in any Jew they meet as they seek to believe that they are not hateful because that is undesirable in the society so they must be compassioned. The only way they could ever find out they have a difficulty is to get to know a Jew without knowing the person is Jewish and then have their world shook when they are informed that this otherwise normal person they were friends with is actually one of them, a Jew. Then they can come to grips and possibly change and realize that Jews are actually no different than anyone else. The problem is there simply are not sufficient Jews to go around and allow for everyone to have just such an awareness enhancing experience.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

* MENA are the nations of the Middle East and North Africa

 

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