Beyond the Cusp

February 17, 2017

Let’s Talk Middle East Conflict, Minus One Overly Blamed Nation

 

We are going to do something which the average person would believe impossible, discuss conflicts in the Middle East, which includes North Africa and the entirety that goes by the initials MENA, without mentioning Israel other than this once. Yes, that is not only possible but necessary such that people can learn how solving the Palestinian issue would not bring peace to one of the most troubled areas on the planet. There are a number of separate wars going on in Libya alone. In the capital city of Tripoli the government’s forces hold a little more than the offices of the Parliament, the President and the other government buildings and their residences, and only because they reside very close to this central area in Tripoli. There are usually a minimum of two rebel groups at any time fighting the government as well as one another. Often there are more than two as these clans believe that they should be the ones running the country and that Libya is their personal playground. These clans also fight against any terrorists who they believe are trying to take over their areas which they actually do control. The terrorists fight to retain their training grounds. Benghazi is also an open warfare zone with no real governance which controls the entire city but it is the second largest concentration of government military forces. As the government forces do control the port of Tripoli there does exist some trade which is mostly necessities as well as arms and ammunition to keep the government in control. Further, Benghazi, Tobruk, Surt and the other major ports are often changing hands as different groups will exert the necessary force to take the ports when they are expecting shipments from their arms merchants. As some European and many Middle East and Asian arms dealers are making a fair profit, the risks of doing business with the different clans and terror groups operating in Libya is worth the risks involved. Needless to say, the violence in Libya does not always stay in Libya; it often crosses borders into Egypt, Algeria, Chad, Niger and even the Sudan. One of the main arms providers is the Sudanese government and arms dealers taking side action arming the Sudanese neighboring nations including Libya but excluding South Sudan as this is not permitted by the Sudanese government.

 

There is a very good reason that the Sudanese government has made the providing of arms to South Sudan a capital offence, they are still fighting a war and committing a slow genocide against the Christians and Animists and act as if nobody in the world has recognized South Sudan as a separate nation. As long as the world, including those who have recognized South Sudan as a separate nation, do nothing of consequence to protest the nascent country from its far stronger and well-armed former rulers, the killing will continue. There have been some troops provided by the African Union. The United Nations also has sent troops to South Sudan. The problem is what is really necessary would be an entire army, which is not what has been sent. Back in 2013 the United States took what it claimed was measures to assure the genocide in South Sudan would be relieved by allocating one-hundred-fifty Marines and a few aircraft to the Horn of Africa from where they were to be capable of evacuating people under threat in South Sudan. As is said repeatedly in Bill Cosby’s routine on Noah, “Right!” Our new United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres stated this week that refugees were fleeing cities and towns and that “The security situation continues to deteriorate in parts of the country and the consequent impact of this ongoing conflict and violence, has reached catastrophic proportions for civilians,” A United Nations report stated, “The rise of militias under the loose command of the SPLA or rebel commanders is spreading the fragmentation and dislocation of its territories, which risk, if this trend continues, remaining out of any government control for years to come.” The United Nations further reports that the numbers of refugees currently seeking relief is beyond one and a half million.

 

Now we can slide over to Somalia which is only a real country on maps for lack of a better means of describing the area. Like Libya there is no actual ruling government but instead a series of gangs ruling their territories with iron fists and warring with each other trying to increase their domain. The people have to make sure they are aware of which gang is currently ruling their block of homes as that will also define where they are allowed to shop and who they may visit. Crossing from one region to the next carries varying degrees of danger. Some of the gangs along the shoreline engage in pirating for a living seeking pleasure yachts, merchant ships and even passing warships which are traveling without escort. These pirates have varying levels of gall living by the code “no guts, no glory.” They have attacked European, Asian, Australian, Canadian and American shipping and anybody else who comes within their range. Their method is to use a larger ship which remains out of sight but relatively close and smaller craft attack the target vessels and attempt to board and commandeer the ship then demanding ransom for the ship, crew and cargo. They check the cargo for anything they might desire or need to keep for themselves and will take any weapons they find an board the ships they take. There has been some degree of international efforts to bring this to an end but for the most part ships take their own risks coming out of the Red Sea after passing through the Suez Canal.

 

Of course that means they need to make their way through the Bab el-Mandeb Straights without being struck by Houthis shelling out of Yemen. The Houthi rebels in Yemen are Iranian backed and attempting to conquer all of Yemen to give Iran a base from which to attack Saudi Arabia from the south. This will come in very handy should Iran decide to attack Saudi Arabia from Iraq and the north mainly the northeast of Saudi Arabia which has the majority of Shiite Muslims as well as most of the oil fields. Additionally, Iran has made friends with Qatar and has made overtures claiming than Oman and Bahrain are actually breakaway Iranian provinces. Much like China keeps threatening that they will one day rejoin Taiwan to the mainland as it is simply a breakaway province, Iran makes the same claims on Oman and Bahrain. Bahrain has a Sunni monarch and a predominantly Shiite population. During the Arab Spring (boy was that a joke and a complete disaster from the word go thanks in part to President Obama who had a hand in these failed revolts with great assistance from Hillary Clinton and the European Union) the Shiites in Bahrain revolted and things appeared to be heading for real troubles, that was until Saudi Arabia used the multi-lane causeway highway to send troops to quell the revolt. The Shiites left their Mosques on Friday all revved up to overthrow the monarch when they found tanks, armored personnel carriers and heavily armed Saudi Arabian troops at both ends of the block so everybody calmed down and went home. Sure there were a few short outbursts of violence which were immediately quelled. The entire Arab Spring in Bahrain ended that Friday with barely a whimper. Similarly, the Shiites in the northeast of Saudi Arabia thought about staging an uprising but were quickly persuaded to remain calm. That thought of rising up was so short it did not even make a single news cycle.

 

Egypt is next on out little tour and is currently largely complacent. They had their Arab Spring and threw out military rule and President Mubarak and replaced him with the predicted Muslim Brotherhood candidate, President Morsi. President Morsi was advised by Turkish President Erdogan to take a slow and steady approach to Islamizing Egypt but paid that no heed. He took off on a radical program of change trying almost overnight to make Egypt a Muslim Brotherhood run totalitarian hellhole. This was met with a public already in revolt mode and they rose up again and demanded Morsi’s head. General of the Army Sisi took the hint and removed the Muslim Brotherhood from power and held new elections. Having the most recognized name in Egypt and having just saved the day, surprisingly Sisi who had stepped down from General of the Army ran and won the Presidency of Egypt. So Egypt is now safely back under military rule for intents and purposes and appears happy to be so. The one problem is the Sinai Peninsula. The Sinai Peninsula is filled with terrorists from al-Qaeda and Islamic State to Hamas and even Iranian backed groups. They attack Egyptian military outposts with varying degrees of success. They often attack the border outposts between Egypt and Gaza in order to allow the flow of terrorists, arms, and contraband into and out of Gaza where Hamas and Islamic Jihad share control. What is interesting about Gaza is that Islamic Jihad is supplied by Iran amongst others and Hamas is Muslim Brotherhood thus provisioned by them and also on occasion they are given rocket engine technologies and even rudimentary guidance systems from Iran as Iran will even arm Sunnis if they are attacking Iran’s favorite target. Egypt has yet to put down the menaces in the Sinai Peninsula and they have even been cleared to use whatever troops and equipment they need and they are apparently fighting a losing battle, or at least not completely reaching a totally peaceful situation. Perhaps they never should have accepted the Sinai Peninsula back when they made peace between President Sadat and Prime Minister Begin.

 

Turkey is also involved in a war which few appear to care to mention. They are claiming to fight against Bashir al-Assad in Syria as well as against Islamic State but somehow the majority of their efforts appear to be barely across the border. They seem preoccupied, or at least President Erdogan is preoccupied, with the Kurds. Turkey could actually make a great agreement and win an ally for life if they would simply allow the Kurds to form their own nation out of northeastern Syria, northern Iraq and at the worst a few tens or hundreds of square miles of southeastern Turkey where the population is majority Kurdish. The United States or other groups would probably handsomely reward Turkey for the lost lands, give a relocation allowance to any Turkish non-Kurdish citizens desiring to leave the Kurdish nation and return to Turkey and all could be settled. Even if Turkey refused to sacrifice a small portion of land, the Kurds in Turkey would likely relocate if they were granted recognition as a nation as was promised them by the British (we all know how good the British are on their promises when oil is involved). Turkey has been bombing and using ground assaults backed by heavy armor against the Kurds who have largely been fighting the Islamic State. Apparently Turkey would prefer the Islamic State on their border than the Kurds, there is no accounting for taste.

 

Middle East & North Africa (MENA)

Middle East & North Africa (MENA)

 

Then there are the wars outside of Yemen and Gaza where Iran is a major player. We are referring to Iraq and Syria where Iran is attempting to rule Iraq through proxy and reestablish Bashir al-Assad as the ruler of Syria. Bashir al-Assad has lost almost the entirety of his nation to the Islamic State, a number of other rebels, a Kurdish section which is simply attempting to protect their own people as well as the Yazidi refugees they took in after rescuing them when the rest of the world twiddled their thumbs, President Obama leading the thumb twiddlers. Iran has a friend in Russia who are actually fighting simply to retain their Mediterranean Sea port privileges such that they retain a warm water port capable of allowing ships to enter the Atlantic Ocean year round without having to pass through the Dardanelles in Turkey, an iffy situation at times. That is why the majority of the Russian operations center around Latakia and the port facilities located in that Mediterranean coastal city. Latakia is also in the central region where the Alawite Tribe resides which also happens to be Bashir al-Assad’s allies and tribal alliance and they along with some of the Druze except they have largely withdrawn and are simply, as are the Kurds, defending their own people and lands from the Islamic State and any other threats. They are safe from the Russians, Iranians and Syrian Army and even most likely the Hezballah forces from Lebanon who are supporting Bashir al-Assad as if Syria was their own country and not Lebanon. Hezballah is there because Iran insisted they fight or else Iran would have cut them off and they would then be facing the rest of Lebanon ready to dispose of the Hezballah terrorists who have been ruling Lebanon through their military threat. The one benefit of Hezballah fighting in Syria and taking the casualties in numbers far higher than are admitted is they are unable to attack any others including but not limited to the Christians and other minorities in Lebanon.

 

Our final stop is at the Afghanistan and Pakistan end of MENA. We left out some of the nations at the far end of northern Africa where one of the major problems is Boko Haram who are bloodthirsty Islamist terrorists who often kidnap Christians and even other Muslims and sell them into slavery. They specialize in selling to the sex slave industry and thus most often target young women and boys. Their other main effort is to murder Christians and Animists, something which sounds familiar from the South Sudan. Boko Haram operated largely centered on northern and central Nigeria and the neighboring areas even south to Mali. Meanwhile, Afghanistan and Pakistan consist of large areas which are considered tribal and the government rarely enters these zones as the tribes are well armed and do not recognize the governmental right to their areas. Too often these tribal areas will war with one another and then they make their money off of allowing terrorists to train and make a lucrative business from poppies. The heroin trade is something the government does not fight as they too benefit from the trafficking in illicit drugs. Until there is introduced another cash crop the farmers will grow and sell the easiest and most profitable crop they can raise, poppies. The flowers are almost as pretty as the profits. Needless to point out but where you have such profits there will always be violence as the tribes desire to expand their fields and taking the tribe next door’s fields is the quickest way to making more profit. Additionally, there is the constant state of conflict between Pakistan and India over Kashmir, a nation which appears on older maps and had the distinction of having to be colored white because it had so many neighboring nations on its border that it needed it own color and white was the best one not in use anywhere else. That concludes our Middle East conflict roundup leaving one nation obviously ignored, imagine all this without mentioning the nation always considered the source of the Middle East conflict chart. Perhaps the rest of it is not so peaceful after all.

 

Beyond the Cusp

 

February 5, 2017

Trump Accepting Minorities Means More than Just Christians

 

Trump excluded minorities from the immigration temporary ban, which might surprise many as to the numbers and different minorities exist throughout these seven nations listed in President Trump’s order, Iraq, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan and Somalia. Perhaps we should start with a quick reference of the population of each of the nations in question. So, on with the show.

 

Nations Affected Under President Trump Immigration Order

 

Iraq consists mostly of differing tribes such as Kurds (some being Muslims), Bedouins (some being Muslims), Feylis, Yazidis, Shabaks, Kaka’is, Armenians, Circassians, Persians, Mandaeans, Sabians, Bahá’ís and Doms. The minority religious makeup is Christianity accounting for 0.8% of the population while the rest practice Mandaeism, Yazidism, Zoroastrianism, a minor smattering of Jews who remaining in Iraq and other religions. Iraq is on the verge of failing as a governance as the Sunni central zones and the Shia majority in the south are in conflict and the Kurdish north has allied with the Kurds of Syria but are being targeted by the Turkish forces which cross into the nation claiming to attack terrorist groups when in reality they assist terrorists against Assad and more so against the Kurds. If the Kurdish areas from the Syrian northeast, the northern areas of Iraq and the Kurdish regions in northwest Iran were united, they could form the promised nation of Kurdistan and take in any Kurds wishing to relocate from Turkey thus removing the perceived threat by Kurds to Turkey and potentially ending the bloodshed.

 

Syria also has a number of tribal minorities including Kurds, Armenians, Turkman, Aramaic Assyrian, Chaldean, Yazidi, Druze, Syriacs with religious minorities numbering Christian 10% which includes Greek Orthodox, Greek Christian, Latin Catholics, Protestants, Maronites, Uniate, and Nestorian as well as Druze 3% and a minor smattering of Jews who remain in Syria. The war in Syria has more sides than a set of dice and the nation has no operative governance and has completely failed as a nation.

 

Iran also has a sizeable Kurdish minority (10%) many of which are Muslim but likely not banned by President Trump’s order. Turkmans Balochs and Arabs make up two percent of the population each while sixty percent of the population being of Persian extraction Azeris making up most of the remaining population at sixteen percent. Iran has a tiny minority of non-Muslims totaling less than one percent of the population consisting of a mix of Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian. Iran is probably the most stable country in governance but qualifies for the list as the largest state funder of terrorism worldwide.

 

Libya is a mix of mostly Muslims tribes mostly ruled by their strongest clan with each tribe warring with their neighboring tribe. The violence between the many tribal factions even made terrorist training camps unsafe to such a point that many packed up and left for safer climes. The situation has only worsened progressing from bad to worse after the dethroning of Muammar Gaddafi leaving a central government barely able to rule the capital of Tripoli. The uncertainty of the entire region was made evident with the murder of United States Ambassador Chris Stevens as well as his aide Sean Smith along with former Navy Seals Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods who both went down fighting throughout the night finally succumbing to mortar fire from al-Qaeda terror groups who were seeking to gather as many MANPAD anti-aircraft weapons, the same weapons which the Americans who were murdered were attempting to intercept and send on to Syria to assist the American backed Syrian rebels.

 

Sudan has a small Christian population consisting of Nubian Coptic, Coptic Orthodox and other groups of Christians in the Nuba Mountains who have declared their area to be a new nation recognized as South Sudan, Animists of several roots and persuasions. Like Yemen the Sudan and South Sudan are warring as the Muslims from the Sudan, the northern half, are trying to unify the breakaway nation which is largely Christian and Animist. There have been too many genocidal assaults against the South Sudan and the nation is in turmoil with the South most resembling a failed state.

 

Yemen once had a sizeable Jewish population but the Jews are now mostly held in a government compound for their protection as otherwise they would rapidly become an endangered species, its Christians are divided into Roman Catholic, Anglican, Ethiopian Orthodox and Tewahedo, and there exists a smattering of Hindus. The real problem with Yemen stems largely from it being engaged in a civil war with the sides being aided by outside national forces. The Houthi tribes are being supplied, trained and even assisted by Iran while the former government and Sunnis are receiving aid from Saudi Arabia. Yemen has all the signs of a failed state.

 

Somalia is predominantly Islamic and tribal with a small minority of Christian and traditional Animists who reside in the south. Somalia has been without any measurable governance for the last few decades with tribal warfare and piracy being rampant across much of the nation with no reasonable end in sight. Somalia probably qualified well ahead of the rest, but how would we know.

 

Many of these minorities are persecuted by the Islamic majority governments spending much of their lives in a sort of hiding keeping a low profile. Often ministering to these minorities is a life threatening career as they are a central target whenever the government seeks a distraction or a group to blame. This position is often filled by Israel but these minority populations are target one when something closer to home is required. Ignoring this exception or attempting to make it appear as if it was only about religion is inaccurate as the Kurdish and Bedouin tribes are often largely Islamic. The President’s order was not about Muslims as much as it was about terrorism which was likely the same reason that Presidents Obama and Bush also named these same nations for additional precautions during their administrations. But why lay everything out in the open when there is a new President to smear. Yes, Trump brought this on himself and deserves much of the scorn being heaped upon him but the media also deserves some truth serum as they pretend such limitations on immigrations have never existed before.

 

Remember that there are a small number of those who would be permitted entry into the United States who are Jews. This stands in stark contrast to during World War II when despite the State Department and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt knowing about the extermination camps and the Final Solution to eliminate Jews, Homosexuals, Roma and other “undesirables” that FDR refused to permit Jews attempting to escape the advancing Nazis to enter the United States while the British refused them entry to the areas under the British Mandate. FDR is rumored to have stated that the United States did not need any more than a minority of Jews and he feared permitting additional Jews into the United States. At least this time the Jews will be permitted to escape potential persecution should they so choose. There will also be numerous Islamic minority peoples who also will be permitted entry along with Christians and Animists among others. And for the record, Islam is not a race and encompasses membership from virtually if not every racial group on Earth.

 

Beyond the Cusp 

 

January 30, 2017

The SDS Solution to the Immigrant Vetting Challenge

 

President Trump has lately been credited with coming up with a security screening process which was actually instituted and put into action by President Obama. That’s right; President Trump is being credited by the mainstream media with implementing a policy which belonged to President Obama. We would like to demand that President Obama be granted the credit to which he is entitled. United States policy under President Obama to restrict and target people “who have been present in Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, at any time on or after March 1, 2011 excepting military and authorized government employees and contractors.” This was text of the US Customs and Border Protection in 2015 relating to “the Visa Waiver Program and Terrorist Travel Protection Act of 2015”. The link even includes the seven nation list in it: “Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, or Yemen.” The information can be located at the following link in the section titled, “What is the Visa Waiver Program Improvement and Terrorist Travel Prevention Act of 2015? Why is it necessary to once again expand the amount of ESTA information being collected from VWP travelers?” Note that all of these restrictions were started under President Obama and were to continue until the end of his administration and for the most part, all President Trump has done is to reinstate the policies of the Immigration and Naturalization Service which were put in place by his predecessor. This is nothing new under the sun but simply a continuation of policies already in place. President Obama likely allowed them to lapse at the end of his term simply so an incoming President Trump would need to reinstate the policy and then catch the full acrimonious and viperous attention of the mainstream media who would deceive by making this entirely the mean-spiritedness of President Trump rather than honestly report this was but a continuation of the mean-spiritedness of President Obama. Talk about “fake news” and the people who craft it.

 

Is there reason to slow or even prevent the free flow of refugees from these war-torn and economically starving areas despite the refugee problems? Yes, as it is well-known and documented that Islamic State, Hezballah, Hamas, al-Qaeda, IRGC (Iranian Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps) and who knows who else are all discreetly hiding agents, terror organizers, bomb makers, radicalized Imams, terrorists, trainers and other necessary elements to start full ground operations. Their plans go way beyond simply terrorism with such activities as recruitment, radicalization, and political subversion; but also range to using the freedoms of the Constitution against the nation, subverting rights as a weapon and others who would, among other items, be committing to the Muslim Brotherhood plans to perform grand Jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and “sabotaging” its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God’s religion (Islam) is made victorious over all other religions. If any of this sends chills up your spine, then congratulations, you are a thinking and feeling individual. If your reaction is simply a shrug and commenting, so what else is new, then we hope that is because you already understand the threats. If this is all new and confusing, read on as the solution could be so straightforward as to amaze you and have you writing your Congressional representatives, both in the House and Senate, demanding they take action to implement what we will reveal.

 

First a very brief history which will include how 9/11 could have been very likely averted but cost analysis made it apparently unprofitable and in the service of remaining competitive the American and European air carriers refused to change. Back when the PLO first made airline hijacking popular and other terror groups and political malcontents were using their designs of terror and in the United States aircraft were being hijacked to Cuba, the American airline companies met in a joint session and later one-on-one with representatives of El Al, the Israeli airlines, to find out how and why El Al had such a clean record when they had to be target number one. The security experts from El Al explained their layered approach where each passenger was screened at least three times with no single screener asking more than four or five pertinent questions taking under three minutes at each station. The greeter at the curb, the baggage handler, the ticket and seating agent and finally at the gate itself were the areas where the passengers made contact with El Al personnel and each had their responsibilities. Simple questions such as final destination for your baggage, connecting flights, reason for trip, are you traveling alone, who with if not alone, relationship, where do your reside, where will you be staying, and other seemingly innocuous questions all together paint a picture and if that picture does not fit together well, then additional screening would be in order and if probability of serious discrepancies, then serious questions and checks of luggage and all with the person removed from the normal flow so as not to disturb others. This required trained people at each layer and higher salaries to attract people capable of such operations, thus very few if any near minimum wage people greeting or working directly with passengers. These people would have salaries in excess of their American and European counterparts. These were much of why El Al flights often were and still are more expensive. But the El Al system works for El Al but they have far fewer flights daily, fewer terminals in which they operate, and far fewer employees total. The costs for the rest of the developed world’s airlines was determined to be cost prohibitive thus were rejected out of hand even to the implementation of even the most rudimentary of the system which might have allowed for the detection of terrorists on 9/11.

 

Now for us to sound like an infomercial, as there is no other way to talk about this system which could completely revolutionize screening and vetting people. The systems are already in use in reportedly a dozen countries by government or private entities. The system requires minimal operator intervention and a single operator can monitor numerous units, reportedly up to ten though we might advise merely five to eight knowing the little we have researched. Each unit consists of a laptop computer screen and keyboard and headphones. The system asks questions in words on the screen as well as speaking them through the headphones. There are eight to twelve questions depending on criteria in the system and it returns a safe or suspect determination on which the operator can act. The system is over 90% accurate in determining sage vs suspect in testing and follow-up on its use in the real world. Whatever the cost, the first time it prevents a hijacking or an actual terror attack the price has just become well worth the investment for all involved, especially the innocent lives saved by its allowing intervention before any terror or criminal act has been able to materialize. The system uses no X-rays or other medically critical elements other than body mechanics and facial trending recognitions. The system is entirely noninvasive checking various parameters such as skin conductivity, blood pressure, changes in facial temperatures and pupil dilation. Pupil analysis is more accurate than fingerprint analysis, as the pupil is harder to fake and its form varies from person to person. The subject’s fingerprints and vocal imprints are also recorded. These physiological parameters may indicate stress, and stress raises suspicion. The systems can be deployed to be used in border checkpoints, airports, offices and other sensitive spots.

 

Shabtai Shoval’s SDS (Suspect Detection Systems) Cogito System with Booth

Shabtai Shoval’s SDS (Suspect Detection Systems) Cogito System with Booth

 

Here is how the company explains the systems operation. The subjects sit down and place their hand on a sensor, put on the attached headphones and look at the display in front of them. A series of questions is presented, which takes up to seven minutes to answer. The answers are analyzed, information is cross-referenced using an integrated database and eventually the system determines whether the subject is an innocent or a suspect. Suspects are subjected to further interrogation while innocents are free to continue. (Company information and other information can be found or linked from here) The system was developed partly using funding from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, yet the system has not been implemented to replace the majority of TSA personnel and allowing Americans traveling by air to keep their shoes on and not receive a lifetime dose of X-rays in order to board an airliner. The least the TSA could do is provide the full body X-rays to your medical provider so you will not need to X-ray another part of your body unless you break a bone. Well, you’re right, not exactly. But at least they could tell if everything is where it should be within your body and perhaps some glaring problem might be evident which can be nipped in the bud immediately rather than waiting for the onset of symptoms, we hate symptom. I realize we have sounded more like one of Shabtai Shoval’s paid salespeople, but we assure you we are not as had we received commissions for selling his products, we would likely be living in our own custom home on the beach (which we do in our dreams) but assure you that is not yet the case. Perhaps if the TSA show him our article when ordering these units we might then get a small commission, or a large one, we are not proud. Anyway, the real question is as this system has proven so effective, why is it not being implemented in every airport in the world and used wherever security checks are required in numbers and both reliably and quickly. That is what astounds us and likely Shabtai Shoval as well.

 

Beyond the Cusp 

 

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